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The CeletrixTM Sealed Tube

1.  Limitations of capillary electroporation 

The wall of the capillary is an insulator. When a cell is very close to the capillary wall, a narrow passage between the cell and the capillary wall is formed for the electric current to pass through. This narrow passage is allocated a higher voltage because liquid resistance is inversely proportional to the cross-sectional area. The effective electroporation surface on the cell is also increased. The capillary effect (CE) can be similarly achieved in a non-capillary solution by placing cells at a high concentration allowing them to be each other’s next insulator.

■ The capillary effect is very sensitive to the distance between the cell and the capillary wall. When a cell is very close to the capillary wall ( ), capillary effect (CE) is very strong and this cell would need a lower pulse voltage. As the cell-to-wall distance increases ( ), capillary effect quickly weakens and this cell would need a higher pulse voltage. When the cell is placed about two cell diameters’ distance from the capillary wall ( ), there is almost zero capillary effect and this cell would require an even higher voltage.

■ Since all cells in a capillary experience the same voltage pulse from a pulse generator, it is not possible for the pulse to be equally suitable for all three areas of cells. Therefore the capillary mechanism is inherently limited.

The limitations of capillary electrporation:

1) Help is partial and unequal, inherently unsuitable for high efficiency;

2) Air bubbles not compressed, current disturbance and arcing;

3) Small volume, inconvenient and high cost with bulk cell samples;

4) Low power pulse generator, non-scalable.

2.  The CeletrixTM Sealed Tube 

1>  Uniform electric field for high efficiency electroporation.

2 > No limitations of cuvette or capillary.

3>  Selection of sample volumes from small 20ul to large 800ul.

4>  Fast and cost-effective for large samples.

5>  Precision and reproducibility.

3.  Advantages of CeletrixTM Tube